Sport Injuries in Young Athletes

                     Young athletes now a days are very intense when it comes to sports. College and high school athletes are very intense when it comes to sports for young adults.  I just had knee surgery because of a sports related injury from soccer and I am only 16 years old. I read the article, “Teen’s Training Too Hard, Too Often” in the Boston Globe written by Kay Lazar.  In the article it explains how kids start sports at early ages which makes for the wear and tear of joints later on. The article explains, ” Surgeons and physical therapists say they see an epidemic of overuse — fractures, tears, and worn-down joints — in children who are playing at higher intensities and at younger ages. Surgeries to repair shoulder, elbow, knee, and hip injuries, once thought to be adult fare, are being routinely performed on preteens and teenagers.” Also the article states how girls are more prone to injuries than boys, “Doctors aren’t sure why girls are more prone to the injury but suspect it may be in part because they haven’t developed the muscle mass needed to stabilize their legs during and after growth spurts.” This is something that should be more studied so people can have a more definite answer. After a sports injury that requires surgery, young athletes are prone to have arthritis early. For instance, if you have a degenerative cartildige in your knee from a sports related injury, this will not benefit you in the long run. You may even need knee surgery.  Your actually more predisposed to knee surgery with that type of injury.  This article gave me the new thought on what young athletes could do to prevent these injuries. This was a very interesting and informative article!


New Vocab

Predispose: to give an inclination or tendency to beforehand; make susceptible

Degenerative: tending to degenerate

Prone:  having a natural inclination or tendency to something; disposed; liable


Making Soap Lab

My partner Haley and I worked very hard on this lab. We made soap using chemistry! First we gathered all of our oils and heated up our hot plate. On the hot plate we placed our beaker filled with lye and water. We after added a gram of sugar to the mixture. The beaker got very hot and the temperature rose to 49 degrees Celsius. Before we added the olive oil, coconut oil, avocado oil, and Crisco oil we measured the temperature. Here are the temperatures:

Olive Oil- 22 degrees Celsius

Coconut Oil- 25 degrees Celsius

Avocado Oil-24 degrees Celsius

Crisco Oil- 53 degrees Celsius

After we added all of these oils to the NaOh+water mixture, the final temperature we measured was 33 degrees Celsius. Then we poured some lilac and ginger into the mixture. The mixture turned purple! After we poured our mixture into a plastic cup and we are letting the mixture harden.

Here are some pictures:

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The Pressure Of Popping Corn

My group did not do this lab correctly at all. Therefore, I do not have all the results because most of them came out incorrect because they were all the same… Here are the questions though.

  • Discuss the process of popping popcorn.
  • When you heat popcorn, what happens to the water inside the popcorn kernels?
  • Why don’t some popcorn kernels pop?
  • What is the relationship between pressure and temperature?
  • How does heating popcorn affect the pressure inside the popcorn?


The process of popping popcorn kernels was quite interesting. You first heat up a hot plate then put a beaker on top of it with kernels inside the beaker. You make sure the something is covering the opening at the top of the beaker so the heat does not go out. Then you move the beaker in a circular motion on the hot plate. After about 10 minutes the popcorn started to pop!! This was the most fun part of the experiment. When you heat the popcorn kernels, the water inside the kernel expands into a gas which makes the popcorn pop. This is because the heat builds up the pressure inside the popcorn kernel which causes it to pop. So popcorn kernels didn’t pop because they weren’t stirred enough on the hot plate or just simply because the pressure in the kernel didn’t explode because there was no water. The relationship between pressure and temperature is that once the temperature increases, the pressure also increases. This is the main reason why popcorn kernels pop. Heating popcorn affects the pressure inside the popcorn because the molecules in the kernel expand until they cannot expand any further which causes the popping. Overall, this was an interesting experiment, and I wish me and partner did not have incorrect date because it messed us up on parts of the experiment.

Then and Now What I Used to Think on Gases

I used to think that gases made up everything which is not true. Every time I thought of the word gases I would think of evaporation. I would think of this because the water from oceans would evaporate into a gas in the air because of the heat. What I know now is pressure and temperature has a lot to do with how gases work. Molecules also move around and play a huge key role in gases too.

The Gases Around Me

Ice Melt Graph

During the Charles Lab  me and my lab partner noticed a lot of interesting things about molecular motion. We first put a beaker on a hot plate with water.  Then we attatched to balloon to the beaker. As the temperature got hotter the balloon got bigger. The molecules inside the balloon would move more rapidly as the temperature increases. But as the mass increases the molecules moved more slowly. The gases responds to changes in temperature, volume, and pressure. I noticed that as my balloon got bigger, condesation appeared inside the balloon. Gases increase as volume, temperature, and pressure increase. The water in the beaker was evaporating as the temperature got hotter and as the balloon got bigger. Which is a reason for condensation in the balloon during this process. Gases have impacts on everyones life. For instance, the weather is a huge example. As pressure in the air increases it is most likely to rain ecspecially when it is humid out. Evaporation occurs over oceans and the clouds carry that evaporation and once the clouds become very heavy, then it rains. Overall, gases realate to everyone in modern day life. Molecular motion is very important to everyone.

Percent Casein Protein Cow Milk Lab

In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. This statement is very correct because in the percent of casein protein in cow milk lab, a new product was formed. You pour 200 mL of skim milk into a beaker. After you place the beaker onto a hot plate and once the milk reaches 70 degrees celcius, you slowly pour 30 mL of lemon juice into the beaker with milk. As you pour the lemon juice into the beaker of skim milk you will notice the milk will start to bubble. Then the lemon juice will cause a chemical reaction within the milk and preciptate will appear. The precipitate will sink down to the bottom of the beaker. Before the lemon juice was added to the skim milk, the milk was neutral. Then when the lemon juice was added, the milk turned to a pH of 5, which is acidic. The percent of protein in cow milk is 7% and the percent of casein protein in skim milk is 5.75%. The percent of yield is 131%. In my lab, I had an account for errors because of excess mass when massing the cheese cloth. The substance percent in milk is 3.5%. The substance in milk that makes cheese is the protein. You can have fat cheese and low fat cheese. We used skim milk in class, that kind of milk does not contain a lot of fat. So you don’t need fat to make milk concluding to my results. Overall, the percent of casein protein cow milk lab was a great lab to learn about proteins and chemical reactions.

Chemistry Story

In the game of soccer, there are two kinds of chemical reactions. The chemical reaction of the defense breaking down and letting a goal in the net, and the chemical reaction of forming a strong defense and not letting any goals in. The offense is the greatest bond. They are a force which scores all the goals in the game. When the opposing team scores a goal, it creates combustion among the team. This causes the team to become very heated and angry to gain that goal back. The product is figured out after all 60 minutes of the game are over. Dissociation occurs when a teammate gets a penalty and has to sit out for a couple of minutes without a replacement. This causes separation on the field. Double displacement occurs when you sub in players for the starters because they are tired. The hydrocarbon oranges gives the players more energy during half time. Some players are insoluble and do not get hurt easily. The chemical equation is the scoreboard in the game. It keeps track of the score with symbols and numbers. Time is definetly the catalyst of the game. The game of soccer really is the same as chemistry. Especially with all the ups and downs of the game. That was my chemistry story!